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How Many Types of Casting Processes Exist?

January 4, 2023

The demand for new and improved products and their applications has risen in no time. It is significant for meeting all the standards and for this right, and relevant components are manufactured. Every component has a different shape, purpose, and layout; to achieve its construction, having the appropriate manufacturing process is also a must.



Casting metals is one of the common methods through which various components are manufactured and shaped the way they must be to fulfill their purpose. Here in this article, you will find every single detail regarding the different kinds of casting processes, so let's read below:

vacuum casting


What is a Casting Process?

The process of casting involves creating the required shape of the metal. In this process, the metal is melted and then poured into a mold, left for cooling and solidification. Various components are manufactured using the casting process, which may be of any size and complexity.



A casting process is an ideal option for manufacturing metal parts required in bulk quantity. Many kinds of casting techniques have their specification, and for every part, a particular process is chosen that meets its specification.



Types of Casting Process

Many kinds of casting processes are chosen for various parts; some are discussed below, followed by their pros and cons.



Sand Casting

The process of sand casting comprises a lot of versatility; in this process, all kinds of metal alloys can produce a component. The production units widely used in bulk industries that need to be manufactured are produced through sand casting.


In this process, a silicone mold is used, and metal is melted and poured into the mold. Once solid, the metal takes the shape of the mold and is trimmed to finish the edges. These components are primarily used in the automobile industry.


The best thing about sand casting is that it is a very economical process, even if the production is carried out in a low volume. Moreover, it offers recyclability and can be chosen for many kinds of metals, whether ferrous or non-ferrous.


However, the surface finishing lacks perfection to a certain extent, and as compared to other processes, there is less accuracy in the components produced using sand casting.

Vacuum die casting


Gravity Die Casting

The process of gravity die casting uses molds for creating the components, and these molds are permanent ones that can be reused. The metal is first melted, poured into these molds, and adjusted so that the filling is adequately controlled.


This process is quite popular with materials like aluminum, magnesium, bronze, etc., and it is used for manufacturing components like wheels, gears, pipe fittings, etc.


The accuracy of the components manufactured under this process is quite good, and even they offer tight tolerance. Even the parts possessing thin walls can be manufactured using gravity die casting. On the other hand, this process is unsuitable for complex components, and the cost of making molds is very high.



Pressure Die Casting

Pressure die casting is a process that requires maintaining a certain pressure, either high or low, during the entire rapid prototyping process. There are mainly two types of pressure die casting, one of them is high-pressure, and the other one is low-pressure die casting.



In the case of high-pressure die casting, the components manufactured comprise the ones with complex structures, which are chosen for bulk manufacturing. However, low-pressure casting components with a simple structure can be made, followed by large volumes.



During the process of pressure die casting, a mold is used, which is glossed with a lubricant, and the molten metal is introduced in such mold. High pressure is observed throughout the process so that the metal doesn't harden immediately. Once the process is completed, the task of finishing and removing excess material is carried out.



The components manufactured under this process consist of high-precision layouts, and the outcome is very efficient and durable. However, the tooling costs and initial investments are very high regarding pressure die casting.



Investment Casting

Investment casting is a very complex process where a mold made of ceramic is manufactured. A binding agent followed by refractory material is used in this process, and a mold is created. The molten metal is poured, and a metal casting is manufactured out of this mold.



However, the process of investment casting is costly and requires a labor force. The components that are complex and also need a high volume of the production are usually manufactured under this method.



Investment casting is applied for manufacturing spare parts, gears, trunks of bicycles, and much more. This process is suitable for manufacturing components with complex dimensions and, at the same time, has thin walls; the dimensional accuracy of these components is quite good, which is why it produces good quality products.



However, a drawback of this process is that it is expensive and requires labor; moreover, it requires very long production runs.

die casting process



Lost Foam Casting

In the process of lost foam casting as well, a mold is created; this requires having a choice of foam instead of wax. This foam is used in creating foam, and then ceramic refractory is coated over the pattern, and a mold is made.



Now, this mold is used for manufacturing components, the metal, which is in the molten form, is poured into the mold, and then a component is manufactured. This process helps manufacture parts that are highly accurate and also have details. However, the components cannot be manufactured in bulk using this method.Different kinds of materials can be used, like carbon steel, ferrous alloy, and steel alloy, and applications of this kind of process are seen in valves, fire hydrants, and fittings.



Vacuum Casting

Vacuum casting requires a process where a vacuum is used that creates pressure. A mold cavity is present within the vacuum, and metal, after melting, is poured into that cavity. By way of doing this, air pockets and bubbles are eliminated. The metal is properly cured in the heating chamber, and a final component is manufactured.



Numerous industries are dependent on manufacturing components used in such industries. The industries that tend to use these components are the marine industry, communication industry, aerospace, and automobile industry.



This process does not have any air bubbles in its final; product, and it is also suitable for low-volume production. The best part is that it comes with appropriate finished products, while components can be finished with the welding process.


Certain downsides are also associated with this process; these are expensive tools and might sometimes leave behind hollowness in the final product.



Continuous Casting

Continuous casting is suitable for industries requiring mass production to manufacture metal profiles. In this form of process, steel bars, billets, and ingots are manufactured. An open-end mold is used in the process, and metal in the molten form is poured inside the mold.



After the metal is poured into the mold, it solidifies upon coming out, and cutting and finishing are carried out immediately.Continuous casting is an ideal process because it is inexpensive and does not cause material wastage. The initial investment in this process is high, and a consistent cooling process is needed to solidify the metal immediately.

vacuum casting


Plaster Casting

The process of plaster casting and sand casting is similar. The only difference is that the plaster casting mold is made using plaster of paris and produces highly accurate components.The components made of metal tend to slow down gradually, and this gradual cooling produces highly accurate parts. This process helps manufacture complex components with thinner walls; on the other hand, the element's surface is very smooth in finish.



Guide for the Steps in Casting Process

The casting process used in manufacturing components is not based on one single step. It follows a complete guideline that needs to be followed step by step, and below are the steps that must be followed to achieve casting components:


● The mold is required to be made, and before that, a pattern must be created; this pattern is followed for the mold-making process.

● Different kinds of materials are chosen for manufacturing molds, which may consist of ceramic, wax, foam, and even wood. Some molds are manufactured for repetitive use, and some for one-time use, depending upon the nature of the component.

● The selection of metal alloys is a significant concern in manufacturing the components. Some alloys are ferrous, and some are non-ferrous. Different metals have different properties, and these are chosen according to the casting process and the component's nature and purpose.

● The metal chosen is then melted and poured into the mold so that it takes the shape of the mold upon solidification.

● The final step is finishing, where uneven edges of the final product are finished, the surface is subjected to a smoother making, and all the necessary finishing processes are undertaken.




Choosing an exemplary rapid prototyping service is very important in the casting process. Hence, you can always contact the Kaiao rapid prototyping service when selecting the service provider.We aim to provide our clients with fine components made using the casting process. We have covered all kinds of casting processes and offer manufacturing of parts based on all forms of alloys. Hence, you may contact us anytime you want, and we will assist you.